# Numeracy

### Years 1 & 2

Year 1 and 2 are important years for reinforcing concepts already learnt, building confidence in handling numbers, and gaining an increasing understanding of mathematical language and the operations they learn to perform. A large amount of learning is achieved through maths games and practical ‘hands on maths.’ Children learn core concepts and methods for the four operations and learn key number facts. They are also introduced to ‘problem solving’ and investigative maths, learning how to apply their learning to real -life situations. Mathematics in Year 1 and 2 is taught through the programmes of ‘Big Maths’ and the White Rose Maths scheme which are written fully in line with the Primary National Curriculum of Mathematics. Through daily maths lessons children are supported with their learning or extended and challenged with additional resources depending on their individual needs.

**In Year 1 the children learn:**

- To count forwards and backwards to 100.
- To partition, order, compare and problem solve using 2-digit numbers.
- To add and subtract 2-digit numbers using both mental and formal methods with 20.
- To place value and simple addition and subtraction of tens and units without carrying.
- To place value of 10, e.g. 14 = 10+4, 1 Ten and 4 Units.
- Introduction to simple multiplication. Introduction to simple division.
- To recall number bonds to 20 To count in 2,5 and 10s.
- To recall halves and doubles of numbers up to 20.
- To recognise odd and even numbers.
- To recognise and name 2D and 3D shapes.
- To measure length using a ruler and compare weight and capacity using non-standard units.
- To recognise ½ and ¼ and to apply to position and direction.
- To tell the time using o’clock and half past.
- To recognise and count coins and notes.
- To develop problem solving skills.

In Year 2 the children build on the core concepts they have learned in Year 1 and continue to learn essential number facts using maths games and hands on practical maths activities. They are introduced to 3-digit numbers and use both mental and more formal strategies to solve calculations using all 4 operations. They develop their skills of problem solving and using and applying maths in everyday situations. As their reading 13 skills progress, they begin to be able to read problems independently and take part in discussions as to how a problem could be solved.

**In Year 2 the children learn the additional concepts: **

- Number bonds to 10 and 20. 10 more and 10 less than a given number.
- Continue to count in 2s, 5s, 10s and then 3s, applying this knowledge to multiplication and division problems.
- Add a 2 digit and 1-digit number including crossing the ten.
- Subtract a 1-digit number from a 2-digit number including crossing the ten.
- Add two 2-digit numbers including crossing the ten.
- Subtract a 2-digit number from a 2-digit number including crossing the ten.
- Recognise coins and notes, count money and make the same amounts, to give change and find the difference between amounts.
- Solve 2 step problems involving money.
- Recognise odd and even numbers. Learn strategies for finding halves and doubles of numbers.
- Tally charts and pictograms.
- Count vertices, edges and faces of 3D shapes.
- Find lines of symmetry.
- Recognise and find ½, ¼, 1/3 and ¾.
- Read the time, including using quarter past, quarter to and telling the time to 5 minutes.
- Measure volume using litres and millilitres.
- Temperature and mass.
- Read a calendar.
- Measuring length and height using metres/cms

### Years 3 & 4

In Year 3 and 4 the principal focus of Maths is to ensure that pupils become increasingly fluent with whole numbers and the four operations. (+, -, x, ÷) The children build on their knowledge of number facts and core concepts. They are introduced to 3-digit and 4- digit numbers and will develop efficient formal written and mental methods, performing calculations accurately with increasingly large whole numbers. Pupils will become increasingly able to solve a range of problems and become more familiar with the language of problem solving. They are encouraged to apply their learning to real life situations and will become more confident discussing their methods.

Children will also begin to carry out calculations using fractions and decimal numbers and be introduced to the concepts of area and perimeter. As in previous years, Mathematics in Year 3 and 4 is taught through the programmes of ‘Big Maths’ and the White Rose Maths scheme which are written fully in line with the Primary National Curriculum of Mathematics. Through daily maths lessons, children are supported with their learning or extended and challenged with additional resources depending on their individual needs.

**In Year 3 the children will learn the following concepts:**

- Read and write numbers to 1,000. Find 1,10 and 100 more/less.
- Count in 25s and 50s.
- Add 3-digit and 1-digit numbers, 10s and 100s, including crossing 10 and 100.
- Subtract a 1-digit number, 10s and 100s from a 3-digit number, including crossing 10 and 100.
- Add 3-digit and 2-digit numbers, including crossing 100.
- Subtract a 2-digit number from a 3-digit number, including crossing 100.
- Use multiplication and division involving the 2,3,4,5, 8 and 10 times tables.
- Convert pounds and pence/euros and cents and give change.
- Interpret tables, pictograms and bar charts.
- Understand 1/10 as a fraction and as a decimal.
- Find equivalent fractions.
- Compare and order fractions.
- Add and subtract fractions with the same denominator and find fractions of an amount.
- Tell the time to the minute, use am and pm, and understand the 24-hour clock.
- Understand angles, horizontal and vertical lines and perpendicular and parallel lines.
- Measure, compare, add and subtract: lengths (m/cm/mm); mass (kg/g); volume/capacity (l/ml).
- Recognising 2D and 3D shapes and naming their properties.
- Relate all mathematical concepts into real life problems.

**In Year 4 the children will learn the following additional concepts: **

- Read and write numbers to 10,000. Round numbers to the nearest 10,100, 1000.
- Compare 4-digit numbers.
- Understand negative numbers and Roman Numerals.
- Add two 4-digit numbers including exchanging.
- Subtract a 2-digit number from a 4-digit number with exchanging.
- Develop the skill of estimation.
- Find equivalent lengths using Km, m, cm and mm.
- Solve problems involving perimeter and area.
- Multiply and divide by 10 and 100.
- Be able to solve multiplication and division calculations using the 6,7,9,11 and 12 times tables.
- Multiply 3 numbers.
- Recognise factor pairs.
- Use formal methods for multiplication and division using 3-digit numbers.
- Add and subtract fractions and find a fraction of an amount.
- Recognise tenths and hundredths, a half and a quarter as decimals.
- Divide a 1-digit and 2-digit number by 10 and 100.
- Round, order and compare decimals.
- Use all four operations with money.
- Read the analogue and digital clock in both 12 hour and 24 hour and calculate duration.
- Solve problems involving time (hours, mins, secs and years, months, weeks, days).
- Interpret line graphs and charts.
- Learn the properties of triangles and quadrilaterals.
- Identify and compare angles.
- Lines of symmetry.
- Recognise horizonal and vertical lines.
- Position and direction (moving on a grid and reading co-ordinates).

### Years 5 & 6

The principal focus of Mathematics teaching in Years 5 and 6 is to ensure that pupils extend their understanding of the number system and place value to include larger integers which include an understanding of 7-digit numbers and beyond. During upper Key Stage 2 children develop a deeper understanding of fractions, decimals, percentages and are introduced to ratio and algebra. Having by now, developed a firm understanding of the core concepts of Maths and key number facts, the children further develop their ability to solve a wider range of problems, including increasingly complex properties of numbers and arithmetic, and problems demanding efficient formal and mental methods of calculation.

They will become more confident discussing their methods and make suggestions as to why one method may be more efficient than another. They will also be able to spot errors in methods and calculations. Mathematics in Year 5 and 6 is taught through the White Rose Maths scheme which is written fully in line with the Primary National Curriculum of Mathematics. Through daily maths lessons children are supported with their learning or extended and challenged with additional resources depending on their individual needs.

**In Year 5 and Year 6 the children will learn the following core concepts:**

- To read and write numbers to 1 million and beyond.
- To round numbers up to 1 million and use estimation.
- To solve problems using negative numbers.
- To use inverse operations.
- To recognise multiples, factors, primes, square and cube numbers.
- To multiply and divide numbers by multiples of 10.
- To multiply 4-digit numbers ad beyond by 2 and 3 digit numbers.
- To divide larger numbers by up to 2 digits and solve problems that have remainders written as fractions and decimals.
- To solve calculations involving improper fractions and mixed numbers.
- To add, subtract, multiply and divide using fractions.
- To calculate a fraction of an amount and the whole from a given fraction.
- To solve problems involving decimals and percentages.
- To solve problems using ratio and algebra.
- To identify, measure, calculate and draw angles.
- To plot, translate and reflect shapes on 4 quadrant grid.
- To convert measures of capacity, length and time.
- To reason and learn the properties of 2D and 3 D shapes.